Producing

Producing - Biodiversity loss

A biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais fornece serviços importantes, embora em grande parte desvalorizados (por exemplo, abastecimento de alimentos,
purificação de água, controlo de cheias e secas, ciclagem de nutrientes e regulação climática) tanto para os ecossistemas humanos como para
o ambiente. A nível global, bem como na maioria das regiões, a biodiversidade tem vindo a diminuir há décadas. A intervenção humana
na biosfera está a levar à perda da diversidade biológica. Se a destruição dos ecossistemas e
dos serviços relacionados não for abordada de forma sustentável, as perdas serão irreversíveis. Além disso, certos benefícios dos ecossistemas podem
ser completamente perdidos.
Fontes: Pesquisa automatizada FOSTER - modelagem de tópicos; fit4food2030.eu: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/774088

Agriculture (re-)territorialisation

Com a crise da COVID-19, a possibilidade de ocorrer uma perturbação na cadeia de abastecimento surgiu como uma grande preocupação (ONU
2020). Em 2021, a interferência do Canal de Suez pela Evergreen fez o comércio internacional ficar frio. Em 2022, a
guerra na Ucrânia causou danos perigosos nos mercados alimentares e na insegurança alimentar.
Fonte: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11625-022-01211-1

Sustainable aquaculture and seafood farming
Smart Irrigation

Os algoritmos de IA otimizam as práticas de irrigação analisando dados sobre os níveis de umidade do solo, previsões meteorológicas e
necessidades de água das plantas. Esta abordagem baseada em dados garante o uso eficiente da água, reduzindo o desperdício de água e melhorando
a saúde das culturas. A IA também pode automatizar sistemas de irrigação, ajustando o fornecimento de água com base nas condições em tempo real e
reduzindo a necessidade de trabalho manual.
Fonte: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2772427122000791

Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA)

A CSA foi concebida para aumentar a produtividade agrícola e, ao mesmo tempo, reduzir as emissões de gases com efeito de estufa de forma sustentável através do
sequestro de carbono. Pode ser um processo natural ou artificial que remove o dióxido de carbono (CO2) da atmosfera,
mitigando o seu efeito de aquecimento. As práticas de CSA, por exemplo, na Índia, vão desde a agricultura de conservação e agrossilvicultura
até à gestão eficiente da água e à diversificação das culturas.
Fonte: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/6/1990

Ammonia

O tamanho do mercado de amônia é estimado em US$ 126,48 bilhões até 2030. Cerca de 70% da amônia produzida industrialmente é
usada para fazer fertilizantes em diversas formas e composições, como uréia e fosfato diamônio. A amônia pura
também é aplicada diretamente no solo.
Fonte: https://www.reportsanddata.com/report-detail/ammonia-market

Agroecology Transitioning toward sustainable, climate and ecosystem-friendly farming and food systems

Farming in Europe has been transformed over the last 70 years by policies, technologies and practices that sought to
guarantee a stable supply of affordable food. But success has come at the cost of mounting environmental degradation.
The EU CORDIS Results Pack highlights 11 EU-funded research projects that demonstrate the potential of more
sustainable alternatives. A holistic approach that supports sustainable agricultural production while maintaining robust
stewardship of the environment, agroecology works with nature and ecosystem services, increasing the resilience and
diversity of farms, and that holds the potential to drive a full transformation of farming and food systems. Agroecology
has implications for a span of agricultural practices, from breeds and varieties used, to soil management practices and
crop diversification strategies, integration in value chains, and business models that can sustain locally adapted
practices and provide greater market opportunities for farmers and consumers. Examples of farming practices
implementing agroecological principles are organic farming, agroforestry and mixed farming.
Agroecology has the potential to become a fundamental tool for the EU in its effort to promote a sustainable farming sector
that respects planetary boundaries and is able to respond to the changing needs of society both in terms of sustainable and
healthy diets and with regard to the environmental and climate issues related to primary production. Research and
innovation in this area is opening up new opportunities in farming systems, making it possible to use ecosystem services to
benefit sustainable and resilient land use systems without jeopardising profitability of the farming activity. Agroecology has
been identified as a practice that can be supported through the eco-schemes under the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). It has also been singled out as one of the sustainable farming practices
that can help achieve the targets of the EU Green Deal and its related Farm to Fork and Biodiversity strategies. Under
Horizon 2020, the EU has funded several research projects dedicated to advancing agroecological research. These
projects are contributing to an increased understanding of the practical implementation of ecological and low-input
farming practices, along with their environmental, climate and social benefits."
Source: https://cordis.europa.eu/article/id/430692-agroecology-transitioning-toward-sustainable-climate-and-ecosystem-friendly-farming-and-food

Sustainable fertiliser production and nutrient management

Fertilisers play a fundamental role in food security. Their production and cost are largely dependent on the availability
of natural gas, and following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the world faces a fertiliser crisis that is driving up food prices.
This Results Pack on Fertilisers highlights 13 EU-funded research projects that can help alleviate the pressures placed on
farmers and consumers, through the innovative synthesis, use and recapture of fertilisers and improved nutrient
management. While humans have been practising agriculture for more than 10,000 years, it was revolutionised a
century ago by the innovation of synthetic chemical fertilisers.
Today, those transformative inputs are under threat, demanding a new agricultural revolution. By creating healthy soils
rich in organic matter and biodiversity, optimising the efficiency of fertiliser use and enhancing the recovery of
nutrients from nutrient-rich side streams such as from manure, food waste or sewage sludge, European farmers can
produce healthier crops and higher yields while reducing impact and increasing resilience to climate change.
In addition, crop-livestock integration, more environmentally friendly methods of fertiliser production (including the
use of green hydrogen), crop diversification and agroecological plant breeds are helping to reduce the EU’s dependency
on mineral and fossil fertilisers. Market-based solutions are also crucial to a more sustainable agricultural system.
Source: https://cordis.europa.eu/article/id/443142-innovative-research-for-sustainable-fertiliser-production-and-nutrient-management

Multiple land use

This theme refers to the use of land for more than one purpose, for example, grazing of livestock, recreation and timber
production. The term may also apply to the use of associated bodies of water for recreational purposes, fishing and
water supply. Land is also more an investment object, less for farming. Land is more and more a construction site. We
see a shift in ownership of agricultural land in favour of large corporations, too.
Source: This theme refers to the use of land for more than one purpose, for example, grazing of livestock, recreation and timber
production. The term may also apply to the use of associated bodies of water for recreational purposes, fishing and
water supply. Land is also more an investment object, less for farming. Land is more and more a construction site. We
see a shift in ownership of agricultural land in favour of large corporations, too.
Source: https://www.publish.csiro.au/aj/AJ84027;

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/irspsd/11/3/11_1/_article;


https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09654313.2019.159802

Water justice - RIVERHOOD

The world’s rivers are fundamental to social and natural well-being but profoundly affected by mega-damming and pollution.
In response, diverse new water justice movements (NWJMs) have emerged worldwide. These transdisciplinary coalitions
creatively transform local ideas for ‘enlivening rivers’ into global action and vice versa, with enormous potential for shaping equitable and nature-based water governance. However, their ideas are under-theorised, largely unnoticed
by natural and social sciences, and excluded from policymaking. The EU-funded RIVERHOOD project will study and
support evolving NWJMs fighting to revitalise rivers in all senses. The project's partners will investigate eight case
studies in Europe and South America to develop a new analytical framework to study NWJMs and 'riverhoods' and
foster knowledge co-creation and democratisation from the bottom up.
Source: https://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/2023-06/H2020_factsheet-Food.pdf

Alternative proteins and dietary shift

Changing and diversifying our diets can be a way to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from food
production, address the challenges of changes in land use and biodiversity loss while providing sufficient, nutritious,
safe and affordable food to a fast-growing population. Excess red and processed meat consumption has significant
negative effects on human health, especially in Western diets. Many sources of proteins other than meat or milk (e.g.
alternative proteins) exist within the current assortment of food products (e.g. edible insects, cultured meat, fungi and
microalgae). First countries (e.g. UAE) demonstrate agreement of the population to increase the consumption of
alternative proteins. Mushroom threads can be used as a resource for many products and dishes. These dietary shifts
and new demand for alternative proteins affect what is and should be produced on a farm level.
Sources: Stella Schaller; Lino Zeddies; Ute Scheub; Sebastian Vollmar (2022): Zukunftsbilder 2045. München: oekom
verlag; https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20230623105222891;
https://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/2023-06/H2020_factsheet-Food.pdf;
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fufo.2021.100086;
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2023/751426/EPRS_BRI(2023)751426_EN.pdf;
doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100287; 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.11.012

Closing the Loop in Aquaculture

The challenges that (finfish) aquaculture is facing have sparked interest in a gradual transition from open to (semi-)
closed aquaculture facilities. Most challenges affecting the aquaculture sector can be addressed by fully-closed systems
as there is a barrier between the cultivated organisms and the natural environment. These systems can either be land-
based or marine, as long as there is no continuous water exchange between the cultivation system and the natural
environment. Although requiring significant investments, the transition from open to closed aquaculture has been
demonstrated to be economically viable.
Sources: FOSTER automated search - topic modelling; fit4food2030.eu: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/774088

Permaculture

Permaculture strives to design sustainable agricultural systems and human habitats that mimic the patterns and
relationships found in natural ecosystems.
Source: FOSTER automated search - topic modelling; fit4food2030.eu: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/774088

Bio-Fortification

Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and
minerals (incl. trace elements) in a food, to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public
health benefit with minimal risk to health. Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is
improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology.
Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Muhammad-Talha-Aslam-2/publication/349866115_Agronomic_Bio-
Fortification_of_Wheat_to_Combat_Zinc_Deficiency_in_Developing_Countries/links/606b7755458515614d3a31e4/Agr
onomic-Bio-Fortification-of-Wheat-to-Combat-Zinc-Deficiency-in-Developing-
Countries.pdf?_sg%5B0%5D=started_experiment_milestone&origin=journalDetail&_rtd=e30%3D

Indoor Cultivation Systems

Indoor (urban) farming technologies involve agricultural production in (multi-storey) buildings. Systems such as
hydroponics or aquaponics grow plants in soilless nutrient solutions. New technologies such as LED lights make
production all year round possible and environmentally friendly. A further advantage of these growing systems is the
controlled conditions or the independence of access to soil.
Source:
http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/resources/files/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JST%20Vol.%2031%20(4)%20Jul.%202023/08
%20JST-3789-2022.pdf

Diversified food systems

The food system is considered from field to fork promoting diversified crop varieties, animal breeds and end products,
considering a diversity of consumers, diets and needs according to diverse environmental, socioeconomic and cultural
contexts in Europe. Diversified food systems show different models, but all focus on sharing added value among
stakeholders within networks and regional organizations. They offer conditions to consumers to choose and enjoy a
broad range of locally adapted, tasteful, nutritional and healthy, as well as sustainably produced food. EU Project
DIVERSIFOOD offers reflections for embedding crop diversity and networking for high quality food systems.
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030691922030035X

Impact Assessment

The assessment of the impacts of food production is gaining more and more attention. Especially, the legal frameworks,
e.g. in gene editing etc., underly strict regulation.
Source: www.nagoyaprotocol-hub.de

Competition for water - AI/ IT services compete with agriculture

There is competition for water - AI/ IT services compete with agriculture. AI and IT services or electromobility and their
facilities need a lot of water. This is often forgotten. In some regions, AI or facilities compete for water. A study (Li et al.
2023) is examining this. We also know the discussions for the permission of Tesla in Brandenburg to build a huge
production facility for e-cars in a region that is scarce of water.
Sources: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2304.03271.pdf; https://www.tesla.com/giga-berlin

Pest control, pesticides, insecticides, fertilisers, and their remainders in food

Asymmetry: often too many chemicals are used and we find pesticides, remainders of insecticides etc. in all food and
the environment. "Over the 40 years span from the early 1960s to the 2000s, global food production has doubled and
land use in agriculture has increased by around 10%. However, pesticide use in the same span has increased by more
than 15-fold. This means that on roughly the same size of land, we applied at least 15 times more pesticide to secure a
2-fold increase in food production made possible also by other factors such as the much higher use of nitrogen fertiliser
(almost 7-fold increase), increased irrigation (1.7-fold) and improved crop genetics. In fact, a number of experts have
already voiced against the myth that pesticides are necessary to feed the world. Another shocking fact is that crop
damage attributable to pests has slightly increased compared to 50 years ago despite pesticide use has skyrocketed.
This suggests that our crops are increasingly susceptible to pest attack and require more pesticide input per unit of crop
production due to our poor agroecosystem resilience management.
There is no feasible way to measure the precise damage pesticides have inflicted on human beings and the environment, let
alone make a fair comparison to the benefit (crop protection) they have given us. However, while one can argue that saving
even just one starving human life could be worth all the damage, it is important to realise that people at present and people
in the future are at odds to some extent, mediated by slow ecological processes. Therefore, it is important not to allow the
act of saving one life today to become nothing more than an excuse to maintain a status quo that has no future. ..." (citation:
https://medium.com/@marmotian/out-of-sight-a-nerve-wrecking-war-on-eyesores-0fa1f9b75596).
Source: https://medium.com/@marmotian/out-of-sight-a-nerve-wrecking-war-on-eyesores-0fa1f9b75596

Insects - farming and eating

The interest in insects as food and feed has been growing exponentially in the last years. The farming of insects has an
environmental impact which is lower than that of livestock species (they can be fed with biomass left from other
processes, need a much lower income of food per kilogram of bodyweight, need less space area per kilogram of protein
produced, see https://www.3keel.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Food_Futures_-report_0.pdf) and are easy to
breed. However, eating insects could bring a rise in allergies and legislation is lagging behind.
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224419302511;
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041;

Aquatic and blue foods

Aquatic and blue foods aim to realise the full potential of sustainable aquatic foods - such as fish, shellfish, aquatic
plants and especially algae, captured or cultivated in freshwater or marine ecosystems - to help end malnutrition and
build nature-positive, equitable and resilient food systems. This is also an EU project with the same name, and in the
future, there will be more and new blue foods.
Source: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/food-security-commission-steps-support-global-action-transform-
food-systems-eight

Replacing Fish in food