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Climate Change and Environment

Temperature increase in Europe higher than in other countries of the world

Different from average calculations, the temperature increase in Europe is higher than in other countries of the world. It is also an uneven distribution and hot spots occur. This does not only lead to extreme events but also to different timely and space patterns of weather, e.g. more rain in certain periods, more drought in others. In 2023, the Earth has set back-to-back records, some signs are convincing.

Sources: FAO; Foresight4Food; Europe is world's fastest

warming continent: climate report:;;;

Climate-resilient crops and agriculture practices

Developing crops and agricultural practices that are resilient to the impacts of climate change, such as drought, heatwaves, and extreme weather events but also to new weather phases and a change in patterns, e.g. more rain in certain periods, more drought in others.


Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions in the food industry

Implementing measures to reduce carbon emissions and greenhouse gas emissions in food production, processing, and transportation.


Adaptation to changing weather patterns and extreme events

Adapting farming practices and infrastructure to cope with the changing climate and increasing frequency of extreme weather events.


Climate-smart agriculture and sustainable resource use

Integrating climate considerations into agricultural practices to minimize environmental impact and resource use raises high expectations.


Weather extremes driven by a meandering jet stream cause multi-regional harvest failure at the same time

The ability of state-of-the-art crop and climate models to adequately reproduce such high impact events is a crucial component for estimating risks to global food security.

Sources: Kornhuber, K., Lesk, C., Schleussner, C.F. et al. Risks of synchronized low yields are underestimated in climate and crop model projections. Nat Commun 14, 3528 (2023).

Future flooding and erosion as a consequence and further driver

Coastal flooding and erosion caused by extreme events are the main factors responsible for beach hazards. This effect will be exacerbated by the sea level rise induced by climate change. The present work determines the vulnerability to erosion and flooding along 55 beaches grouped in different coastal archetypes, representative of the Catalan coast. The vulnerability assessment has been done through the numerical simulation of different combinations for projected waves and mean water levels under present conditions and the climate change scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 for the year 2100. A storm event approach has been used to determine coastal flooding and erosion with return periods of 50, 100, and 500 years using the XBeach numerical model. Results show that shoreline retreat is not the best proxy to characterise the erosion. The low-lying nature of the coast, the non-presence of well-developed berms, and the existence of river mouth and torrents govern the coastal flooding. The sea level rise appears to be a dominant variable in coastal hazards.


4 degrees increase of temperature until 2100

4 degrees increase of temperature until 2100 is one of the negative scenarios in climate change calculations. In each of the scenarios, the poorer part of the world will suffer more than the rich industrialised countries. There will be more hunger, less arable land, heat, drought and fires will destroy many harvests.

Sources: Mahlke 2022 Atlas der Globalisierung: 5-13;

Forest and wildfires can destroy agricultural goods

Forest fires can destroy farmland and are frequently caused by arson or human interference with nature. As a result of climate change, forest fires are expected to increase. In the recent past, numerous forest fires have gotten out of control. As a result, the availability of agricultural commodities is greatly affected and food security is limited. Extreme price fluctuations can occur on the world market.


Heavy rain and flooding can directly destroy agricultural goods

Flooding can cause a significant impact on agriculture. On the one hand, harvests can fail. On the other hand, farmland in particularly endangered areas may become permanently unavailable. Floods are also partly the result of urban expansion due to the detour of rivers. This has a major impact on the availability of agricultural goods and limits food security. Extreme price fluctuations can occur on the world market.



Heat protection measures for the population

Due to extreme heat, the central and northern European countries are also obliged to pay attention to heat protection.


In terms of nutrition, it is a matter of sufficient intake of fluids and a diet adapted to the temperatures (light food).


Governments provide low-threshold educational information on public access to free water.


Disruptive weather events related to climate change, and animal disease outbreaks

Weather disasters and animal diseases have a profound impact on agriculture trade. Severe weather events like droughts, floods, and hurricanes can devastate crops, reduce livestock populations, and disrupt supply chains. These disruptions lead to decreased availability of agricultural products, higher prices, and increased competition for limited resources. Similarly, outbreaks of animal diseases, such as avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, can result in trade restrictions and loss of livestock. Importing countries face challenges in securing adequate food supplies, while exporting nations experience reduced export volumes and revenue. The vulnerability of global food systems necessitates collaborative efforts and investment in resilience to minimise these impacts and ensure a stable food supply.


Wheat harvest: El Niño could trigger a new food crisis

The war in Ukraine is not the only threat to global food security. In many countries, the wheat harvests are worse than expected. This could drive up prices and trigger political unrest. Until a few months ago, the global wheat supply for the 2023/24 marketing year seemed secure. Despite the war in Ukraine, exports from Russia and Ukraine ran largely smoothly. Prices on the stock exchanges were on a downward spiral for months until they fell to their lowest level since summer 2021 at the end of May. The situation has since changed. Civilian shipping on the Black Sea is increasingly threatened by acts of war, which could prompt shipping companies to stop transporting grain from Russia. But even beyond the war in Ukraine, the warning signals on the wheat market are increasing.


AMOC collapse could happen any time between 2025 and 2095 with a 95% confidence interval.

So what would happen if the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation = Gulf Stream) failed and stopped? Is The Gulf Stream Really About To Collapse & Cause Climate Mayhem? A new contribution in Science leads to controversial discussions (, but is clear to say that this will happen, but it is unclear to say when. Background: The algae and carbon dioxide-rich top water can be pushed down into the depths, where the carbon can settle before it can find its way back into the atmosphere. So if the AMOC stopped, the net impact of each kg of carbon emissions we emit would be more significant, and climate change would speed up. This would stop nutrients from being replenished within the Atlantic, which would significantly reduce biomass and biodiversity being

devastating for marine ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on the Atlantic fish stocks for sustenance. It would also wreak havoc with weather patterns across the US and Europe. Rain patterns will drastically change, and seriously extreme winter weather will hit much of Europe and America with far more ferocity and frequency than it does today; hurricanes could become more powerful and more frequent, and heat builds up in the Caribbean seas. This will cost billions of Euros of damage annually and directly threaten millions of lives and significantly reduces the food supply of many developed Western countries as their crops can fail year after year. This reduced food supply has the potential to threaten our economies and cause recessions at a level we have never seen before. Climate scientists were mostly sceptical, and some were even annoyed at this media frenzy because accurate forecasts are impossible (


Green Grabbing

Across the world, ecosystems are for sale. The commodification of nature, and its appropriation by a wide group of players, for a range of uses — current, future and speculative — in the name of ‘sustainability’, ‘conservation’ or ‘green’ values is accelerating.

Sources: James Fairhead, Melissa Leach & Ian Scoones (2012) Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature? The Journal of Peasant Studies;

Climate change will impact everything everywhere all at once

If climate change hits, it will have an effect on everything everywhere and all at once, is a remark from the US that needs reflection. In this case, there is no help from other countries or regions as they are hit themselves. Here is a recommendation to make use of different standards, esp. for investments: “We will keep fighting until we put a stop to ESG once and for all!” ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance and is a set of investment standards for a company’s behaviours. In other words, it’s a set of standards that takes more than profit into account. It was coined by the United Nations in 2005. Originally, the acronym was GES because they believed Governance was the most important of the three. They weren’t wrong then. They aren’t wrong now. They just didn’t know at the time the dire state of our environment in 2023. The quote above is so incredibly dangerous because if the United States completely gives up on the environment now, catastrophe is certain. Even if we went to net zero today, there’s still no way to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. Above 2 degrees, we will see more intensified storms, extreme heatwaves, dangerous flooding, drought, and fire conditions, crop failures, sea level rise, deathly disease increases, and massive loss of biodiversity in flora and fauna. (citation:


Planetary Boundaries

Humans respect planetary boundaries when thinking about food systems; or 2. "Humans do not care about planetary boundaries and endanger their food systems", "Human activities increasingly influence the Earth’s climate (as readable in the International Panel on Climate Change reports since the start of reporting by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change 2007, see and ecosystems (e.g. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) Reports). Crutzen 2002 even saw the Earth entering a new epoch, the Anthropocene, where humans constitute the dominant driver of change to the Earth System (Steffen et al. 2015). The exponential growth of human activities is raising concern that "further pressure on the Earth System could destabilize critical biophysical systems and trigger abrupt or irreversible environmental changes that would be deleterious or even catastrophic for human well-being. This is a profound dilemma because the predominant paradigm of social and economic development remains largely oblivious to the risk of human-induced environmental disasters at continental to planetary scales (Stern Review 2007).

Planetary boundaries is a concept for estimating a safe operating space for humanity with respect to the functioning of the Earth System (, 07.02.2019), which is also touching upon good systems. There are now different ways of dealing with this knowledge: 1. taking it into account (1. Humans respect planetary boundaries when thinking about food systems); or ignoring it (2. Humans do not care about planetary boundaries and endanger their food systems). As we are already overshooting many of our resources and boundaries, it is unclear, how the food system will be impacted.

Sources:;;;; 10.1126/science.1259855; DOI: 10.1038/415023a;;

Water as the next frontier - water security

"Water seems to be the next frontier for comprehensive accounting and adaptation strategies — for food systems too, in industry, municipalities, governments, and individuals, all of which have made impressive commitments and progress to track carbon pollution. "However, our increasingly threatened global water security demands that accounting for water use and risk rapidly acquire the same urgency with which we address carbon." (citation from Some even fear wars over water - already in the US.


Consumer behaviour in face of climate change

It remains a question if and how consumers change their behaviour in face of climate change and seeing first symptoms of it.